Sterilisation1 1


Tubal ligation  (sterilization of the tubes) is a type of permanent birth control. During a tubal ligation, the fallopian tubes are cut, tied, or blocked to prevent pregnancy permanently. Click on the image below to discover the natural treatment to treat blocked tubes.

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Tubal ligation prevents an egg from traveling from the ovaries through the fallopian tubes and prevents sperm from traveling up the fallopian tubes to the egg. The procedure does not affect your menstrual cycle.

Tubal ligation can be done at any time, including after childbirth or in conjunction with other abdominal surgery, such as a cesarean section. Most tubal ligation procedures cannot be reversed. If an attempted reversal is attempted, it requires extensive surgery and is not always effective.

Why it's done

Tubal ligation is one of the most common surgical sterilization procedures used in women. Tubal ligation permanently prevents pregnancy, so you no longer need any type of birth control. However, it does not protect against sexually transmitted infections.

Tubal ligation can also lower your risk of ovarian cancer, especially if the fallopian tubes are removed.

Tubal ligation is not for everyone, however. Your doctor or health care provider will make sure that you fully understand the risks and benefits of the procedure.

Your doctor may also tell you about other options, including long-acting, reversible contraceptives, such as an intrauterine device (IUD) or birth control device implanted in your arm. Another permanent option is hysteroscopic sterilization, in which your doctor places a small coil or other inserts in the fallopian tubes. The insert causes scar tissue to form and seals the tubes.

The risks

The ligation of the trunk's for sure, but all surgeries have risks. Serious problems occur in less than 1 in 1,000 women. You will need to sign a consent form explaining the risks and benefits of surgery and discuss this with your surgeon. Some potential risks include:

  • Bleeding from an incision or inside the abdomen
  • Infection
  • Damage to other organs in the abdomen
  • Side effects of anesthesia
  • Ectopic pregnancy (an egg that fertilizes outside the uterus)
  • Incomplete closure of a fallopian tube resulting in pregnancy 

Although tubal ligation is a safe and effective method of contraception, about 1 in 200 women can still get pregnant after the procedure. Having surgery right after your period starts can avoid the risk of an already fertilized egg reaching your uterus after surgery.

These conditions can increase your risk of problems after surgery:

  • Bleeding from an incision or inside the abdomen
  • Infection
  • Damage to other organs in the abdomen
  • Side effects of anesthesia
  • Ectopic pregnancy (egg that fertilizes outside the uterus)
  • Incomplete closure of a fallopian tube resulting in pregnancy 

You may have other risks, depending on your specific health condition. Be sure to discuss any issues with your doctor before the procedure.

How do you prepare

Before you have a tubal ligation, your doctor will explain your reasons for wanting sterilization. Together you will discuss the factors that might make you regret the decision, such as young age or a change in marital status. Your doctor will also discuss the following with you:

  • Risks and Benefits of Reversible and Permanent Contraceptive Methods
  • Details of the procedure
  • Causes and probability of sterilization failure
  • Ways to prevent sexually transmitted infections

If you do not have a tubal ligation soon after delivery or during a cesarean section, consider using birth control at least one month before the procedure and continue using reliable birth control until performing your tubal ligation procedure.

What you can expect

Tubal ligation can be done:

  • Following a vaginal birth using a small incision under the navel (mini-laparotomy)
  • During a cesarean
  • Anytime as an outpatient procedure using a laparoscope and short-acting general anesthesia (tubal ligation at intervals) 

Before the procedure

You may be asked to take a pregnancy test to make sure you are not pregnant.

During the procedure

If you perform interval tubal ligation on an outpatient basis, insert a needle or make an incision in the navel to inflate your abdomen with gas (carbon dioxide or nitrous oxide). Then a laparoscope is inserted into your abdomen.

In most cases, your doctor will make a second, small incision to insert special instruments through the abdominal wall. Your doctor uses these instruments to seal the fallopian tubes by destroying parts of the tubes or blocking them with rings or plastic clamps.

If you have a tubal ligation after a vaginal birth, your doctor will likely make a small incision below the navel, giving you easy access to your uterus and fallopian tubes. If you have a tubal ligation during a Caesarean section, your health care provider will use the incision made to give birth.

After the procedure

If gas was used during the tubal ligation, it will be removed after the procedure is complete. You may be allowed to go home several hours after an interval tubal ligation. Having a tubal ligation immediately after childbirth usually does not require a longer hospital stay. You will have discomfort at the incision site. You might also have:

  • Abdominal pain or cramps
  • Tired
  • Dizziness
  • Gasification or bloating
  • Shoulder pain 

Your doctor will discuss the management of any post-operative pain with you before you return home from the hospital.

You can bathe 48 hours after the procedure, but avoid straining or rubbing the incision. Dry the incision thoroughly after bathing.

Avoid lifting heavy objects and having sex until your healthcare provider tells you it is safe to do so. Resume your normal activities gradually as you start to feel better. Your points will dissolve and will not require withdrawal. Check with your health care provider to see if you need a follow-up appointment.

If you are concerned that you may not be healing properly, call your doctor. Call your doctor right away if you have:

  • Temperature of 100.4 ° F (38 ° C) or more
  • Fainting
  • Severe abdominal pain that persists or gets worse after 12 hours
  • Bleeding from your wound through your bandage
  • Discharge from your foul smelling wound 


Tubal ligation is a safe and effective form of permanent birth control. But it doesn't work for everyone. Less than 1 in 100 women will get pregnant in the first year after the procedure. The younger you are by the time it is done, the more likely it is to fail.

If you conceive after tubal ligation, there is a risk of ectopic pregnancy. This means that the fertilized eggs are found outside the uterus, usually in a fallopian tube. An ectopic pregnancy requires immediate medical treatment. If you think you are pregnant at any time after having a tubal ligation, contact your health care provider immediately.

Keep in mind that while tubal ligation reversal is possible, the reversal procedure is complicated and may not work.

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